Bodyweight exercises are strength training exercises that do not require free weights; the individual’s own weight provides the resistance for the movement. Movements such as the push-up, the pull-up, and the sit-up are some of the most common bodyweight exercises.
In general, increasing the amount of repetitions will focus on improving endurance, while strength gains are made by increasing the intensity of the exercise through decreasing leverage and working at the ends of range of motion.
The bench press is an upper body strength training exercise that consists of pressing a weight upwards from a supine position. The exercise works the pectoralis major as well as supporting chest, arm, and shoulder muscles like the anterior deltoids, serratus anterior, coracobrachialis, scapulae fixers, trapezii, and the triceps. A barbell is generally used to hold the weight, but a pair ofdumbbells can also be used.
In strength training and fitness, the squat is a compound, full body exercise that trains primarily the musclesof the thighs, hips and buttocks, quadriceps (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and rectus femoris), hamstrings, as well as strengthening the bones, ligaments and insertion of the tendons throughout the lower body. Squats are considered a vital exercise for increasing the strength and size of the legs and buttocks, as well as developing core strength. Isometrically, the lower back, the upper back, the abdominals, the trunk muscles, the costal muscles, and the shoulders and arms are all essential to the exercise and thus are trained when squatting with the proper form.
The overhead press is set up by taking a barbell and putting it on the anterior deltoids. This can be done by taking the barbell from a rack or by cleaning the weight from the floor (clean and press). Alternatively the movement can be performed with dumbbells, though they do not rest neatly on the deltoids. They do not have easily accessible high racks so the trainee needs to clean them or have a spotter assist them in getting them into the starting position.
The overhead press involves moving a barbell or dumbbells from the shoulder and pushing it up above the head until the elbows are fully locked out. As the bar clears the head, the lifter leans forward slightly in order to keep balance. As the bar is lowered back to the shoulders and clears the head again, the lifter leans slightly back.
The overhead press is a highly effective compound upper-body exercise. Performing it standing recruits many more muscle groups in order to maintain balance and support the lift, rather than performing it seated. Like the squat and deadlift, it can be thought of as a whole-body exercise, to some extent.
The deadlift is a weight training exercise in which a loaded barbell is lifted off the ground to the hips, then lowered back to the ground. It is one of the three powerlifting exercises, along with the squat and bench press. There are two positions one can approach when doing the deadlift, which include the conventional deadlift and sumo-deadlift. In most other lifts there is an eccentric (lowering of the weight) phase followed by the concentric (lifting of the weight) phase. During these exercises, a small amount of energy is stored in the stretched muscles and tendons in the eccentric phase, if the lifter is not flexible beyond the range of motion.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. Aerobic literally means “relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen”, and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time.